TURING STRUCTURES 1)2)
Emergent heterogeneous structures in a homogenous distribution of chemicals.
In his 1952 paper on "The chemical basis of morphogenesis", A. TURING showed that some chemicals, homogeneously distributed at first, may, by reactions and diffusion, lead to variations in their local concentrations, i.e. to heterogeneity, and form spatial structures.
This has been experimentally verified. As an asymmetry creating mechanism (rediscoved in 1976 by H. KUHN), it has a very general explanation power for the morphogenesis of complex systems, based on simple evolution rules.
As a result, similar dynamic behavior or structures may be found in very different systems, as for example in vegetal helixes (S. DOUADY and Y. COUDER, 1993).
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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