International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics

2nd Edition, as published by Charles François 2004 Presented by the Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science Vienna for public access.


The International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics was first edited and published by the system scientist Charles François in 1997. The online version that is provided here was based on the 2nd edition in 2004. It was uploaded and gifted to the center by ASC president Michael Lissack in 2019; the BCSSS purchased the rights for the re-publication of this volume in 200?. In 2018, the original editor expressed his wish to pass on the stewardship over the maintenance and further development of the encyclopedia to the Bertalanffy Center. In the future, the BCSSS seeks to further develop the encyclopedia by open collaboration within the systems sciences. Until the center has found and been able to implement an adequate technical solution for this, the static website is made accessible for the benefit of public scholarship and education.


TRAINING (Methods of Systemic) 1)2)3)

A set of practical methods to train young people in order to transmit them the perception and understanding of complexity and, when possible and suitable, the ability to control it without harmful side-effects.

The ability to understand complex situations by progressive adaptation and accommodation is natural in human beings. All of our early training as newborns, infants and young children is of systemic and cybernetic nature. Rational understanding and analysis intervene only later on. Unfortunately these belated mental acquisitions tend to obliterate the global perception and understanding or, at least, to impede its use for the study more global situations.

In order to maintain it some young Argentine systemists proposed, and experimented with the following methods used in:

"Systemic workshops: Creating a transdisciplinary area of work, using a global approach to real problems as they appear in the everyday life of the young students. This can be done starting from very general and open thematic cores as for example "youth", "our environment", "our neighbourhood", "the communication media", etc…

These subjects are developed through debates, excursions, games, videoscreening, audio-visual material, readings, interviews, etc…

"Trade workshops: Training in some specially selected trades as for example integral bakery, paper recycling, vegetable gardening, through which systemic processes are presented without any need to use very abstract concepts. Such a work facilitates the understanding of three main systems: the person, the society, and the environment, in their most general sense. It is an optimal way to develop a better understanding of oneself and of natural, physical, mental and social processes.

"Workshop with teachers and authorities: Generating a broader thematic and methodological approach by stimulating a more integrated view of reality and a better understanding of the global interrelations between teachers, pupils, families and the socio-cultural environment. In this case, systemic and cybernetic concepts and models, applied to real situations can be quite useful, if used within the workshops, mostly in an applied non tutorial way."

The experiments met with quite successful results, but no significant support could be found for their extension.

(B. ANGRIMAN, L. FLORIT and A. QUIROGA, pers comm., 1993).


  • 1) General information
  • 2) Methodology or model
  • 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
  • 4) Human sciences
  • 5) Discipline oriented


Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science(2020).

To cite this page, please use the following information:

Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]

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