"The three dimensional figure described by the rotation of a closed two-dimensional figure across an axis offset from its center" (D. Mc NEIL, 1993 b, p.9).
Mc NEIL comments: "The torus has many consequential topological features which a simple sphere or spheroid does not. For the purpose of a systemological definition however, one of the most important of these is the way in which the torus represents a break in the three-dimensional symmetry of the sphere. The torus is thus an oriented figure which can channel, direct, select and control along its axis, e.g. a duct, a conduit, or a pipe" (1993 b, p.9).
In some sense, the torus differentiates an "inside" from the "outside", and becomes an abstract model for the most various kinds of systems.
For more about the torus, see R.H. ABRAHAM and C.D. SHAW (1988, p.558-73).
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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