L. A. ZADEH observed that: "the problem of systems identification is one of the most basic,and paradoxically, least-studied problems in system theory" (1991, p.320).
The most complete formal methodology for systems identification (and precise description) is G. KLIR's Reconstructability Analysis.
In practice, systems are empirically identified by observers who state, mostly without much ado: "This is the system" This frequently leads to underconceptualization (WARFIELD) and a possibly very incomplete description of the concrete system considered, leading in turn to unsatisfactory modeling. J. WARFIELD's Interpretive Structural Modeling methodology is another valuable tool to avoid this kind of problems.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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