G. BROEKSTRA compares two different basic classifications of systems.
In his opinion closed systems, wherein only the stable relations of the parts to the whole are considered, can be equated with mechanical (Newtonian) systems. In both case, the control is exogenous (or algorithmic).
Open systems are those in which wholes are necessarily related to a specific environment, and are fairly similar to PRIGOGINE'S equilibrium systems, "as dealt with by classical thermodynamics".
Finally, EHRLICH and RAVEN's co-evolving systems are those whose relation to their changing environment is constantly evolving and can be compared with PRIGOGINE's nonequilibrium systems, submitted to "… the principle of order through fluctuation (that) describes the phenomenon of spontaneous structuration" (1993, p.74).
Many other classifications have been proposed, considered from widely different viewpoints. Here are some:
- K. BOULDING: from simple "frameworks" to "transcendental systems" (1956).
- H.A. SIMON: considering specific systems characteristics in systems from physical to symbolic (1965, p.63-76).
- J. LESOURNE: taking in account a less or more developed degree of organization and autonomy (1976).
- J.G. MILLER: His taxonomy of living systems based or growing complexity or organization through 8 levels (1978).
- J.D.R.de RAADT: his multi-modal concept as a base for the characterization of systems on multiple levels from "numerical" to "pistic" (1989, p.17 -25).
- K. KORNWACHS and W.von LUCADOU: based on the degree of describability of systems (1989, p.125).
- G. KLIR: his epistemological systems hierarchy referred to levels of description and related to his reconstructability analysis (1991, p.222 and 344).
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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