- A whole is more than the sum of its parts (it includes the interactions of the parts and their possible multi-functionality)
- A part may have different action potentials in different systems (H in NH4, or in HCI).
- A reliable system can sometimes be made of unreliable, but interacting parts (von NEUMANN)
- A whole tends to maintain a specific and a dynamic stability in time, by being adaptive.
- In a whole, internal relationships are frequently organized in networks.
- Internal networks are dynamic and adaptive through multiple simultaneous and repeated feedbacks.
- Adaptiveness remains constrained within defined limits, frequently in a cyclical way (limit cycles).
- A whole is autonomous in relation to its specific environment, i.e. is able to determine within limits its relationships with it (for ex. Internal temperature regulation in mammifers; or Inputs and outputs flows in an entreprise).
- A whole can associate with others and build wholes of higher complexity (Fusions between entreprises, the European Union)
Generally speaking, systemic properties conform a set of correlated explanations, useful to describe integrate behavior in entities and issues made of numerous interacting elements, as contrasted, but also complementary to the more classical analytic approach.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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