SYSTEM-LEVEL EFFECTS 2)4)5)
One of the most startling system-level effect is that an established system 's dynamics may block invasions by new species, even those endowed with superior characteristics.
In Roger LEWIN's words: "The network of connections between the species of the mature ecosystem protects those species from outside competition" (1997, p. 31)
This remains true until the existing ecosystem is deeply perturbed, with a considerable disorganization of the interrelations network. In such a situation, a sudden collapse becomes possible.
According to LEWIN, such effects can also be observed in economy: New firms, even with a superior product, could be unable to introduce themselves in the productive circle, due to a kind of global inertia of the existing system.
The disorganization of an ecosystem (biological or otherwise) is frequently a progressive process and the collapse occurs only at a critical stability threshold. Some oceanic ecosystems have been thus affected in the recent years and one may wonder if similar effects cannot appear in economic and socio-political systems.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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