A system made from more or less unreliable components.
J.von NEUMANN demonstrated the possibility to construct a globally reliable system from components whose behavior is probabilistic (1956, p.43-98).
This is the case for networks with very numerous components and links among them, probably because a global order appears spontaneously and supersedes local disturbances.
ASHBY's homeostat, as the behavior of its elements becomes ordered as a Markovian process (1958, p.232-4) is also a probabilistic system.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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