A multi-level system is not necessarily rigidly hierarchical in a unique vertical line of command.
There may exist communication lines within the same level between different subsystems, and possibly some local hierarchies at intermediate levels. Various partial or local hierarchies may become unified only at the uppermost level.
Abilities and regulations may even be more or less diffuse under the form or local but interconnected networks, allowing for a heterarchical and holographic organization.
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To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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