C. WEST CHURCHMAN writes (1991, P 29-30): "… we can outline five basic considerations that the scientist believes must be kept in mind when thinking about the meaning of a system:
1. The total system objectives and, more specifically, the performance measures of the whole system.
2. The system's environment (the fixed constraints).
3. The resources of the system.
4. The components of the system, their activities, goals, and measures of performance.
5. The management of the system."
Obviously, this listing refers to human organizational systems and should be adapted for different classes of systems like physical, biological, mechanical ones, for example.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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