SYSTEM (Hierarchic) 1)2)
"A system that is composed of interrelated subsystems, each of the latter being, in turn, hierarchic in structure until we reach some lowest level of elementary subsystem" (H. SIMON, 1965, p.64).
The concept has been put to good use by SIMON in his parable about the two rival watchmakers "Hora and Tempus", which shows how to use the recursive character of hierarchy for the practical study (and guidance!) of hierarchic systems.
The definition of the "lowest elementary subsystem" (or module) is however a modeling decision to be taken.
Altogether, not all systems are hierarchic, at least in their formation period. Networks seem to be self-constructing their organization, which does not seem to be necessarily hierarchic.
In any case, SIMON's concept and model are very useful to clear the hierarchy concept of its authoritarian overtones, giving it a purely organizational meaning.
Transversal and bi- or multi-lateral interrelations among and between subsystems are not, and should not be, excluded under the hierarchical order concept. (See "Heterarchy")
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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