Positive selection produced through a trend towards cooperation among clustering elements. This notion has been introduced by J. MAYNARD SMITH in his paper on "The Evolution of social behavior" (1982, p. 28-44) and developed by him and E. SZATHMARY in subsequent papers.
It is to be noted that the concept of "advantage through altruism"-a value-laden concept – has been progressively abandoned by MAYNARD SMITH and others and replaced by the more neutral (and measurable) one of cooperation.
It could even be argued that cooperation is probably in itself a result of a primarily accidental association which produced a common reinforcement of fitness in some specific environment and/or circumstance.
P. CORNING produced a handy synthesis on the subject (1998b., p. 25-26)
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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