"A purposeful individual or system" (R.L. ACKOFF & F.E. EMERY, 1972, p.34).
According to F. FRISCHKNECHT and J.P.van GIGCH: "subject" generally represents any natural or artificial entity (e.g. cells, organs, organisms, human beings, social groups, institutions, computers) capable of processing, i.e. manipulation" (1989, p.240).
A subject is thus an active, more or less autonomous entity (even if part of an entity of higher level which may control it through an order parameter, in the sense of HAKEN slaving principle)
Human subjects are self-defined. They have viewpoints as observers. They relate to each others through conflict, cooperation, consensus, etc…
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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