"The coded instructions that indicate the level of operation to be maintained by the programs of a controlled system" (J.Z. YOUNG, 1974, p.299).
Standards may be embodied within the program, which is generally the case in artefacts. In natural systems, they must in general be learned. This is – at least partially – the case in biological and social human systems.
From a biological viewpoint, YOUNG notes that: "Hereditary standards are basically defined by the genetic program and then embodied in certain parts of the brain, for instance the hypothalamus".
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To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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