Antagonisms between systems are frequently transcended into specialization in a more complex one, in which the antagonists are submitted to, or have accepted, reciprocal limitations.
Rivalries are transformed into regulated internal countervailing feedbacks which imply, if not cooperation, at least reciprocal tolerance.
Specialization can be functional or structural (as for instance in geographical sectors).
The enhanced heterogeneity within the complex system gives it a better capacity for adaptation.
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To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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