"The number of entities at the next natural lower level in a hierarchy which report directly to the entity whose span is to be identified."(T.F.H. ALLEN & T.B. STARR, 1982, p.277).
ALLEN and STARR explain: "… span is observer- defined by what he chooses as natural boundaries, that is, what he determines to be the next boundary inward or the next level down. Span is a matter of appearances, not of ontological truth, altough appearances involving natural boundaries are often shrinking enough…" (p.278).
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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