E. LASZLO proposed the following classification of sociocultural systems with their basic characteristics (in order of growing complexity):
- Kinship system: Kinship organization (Family, clan, tribe); multi-purpose stone tools; human energy; nomadic hunting territories; hunting economy; pictograms
- Village system: Special purpose tools; animal energy; farming economy; ideograms.
- Empire system: Theocracy-autocracy; metal tools; inorganic energy; integrated economy; writing; special purpose towns; administration.
- Nation-state system: Democracy; machine technology; transformation of energy; mechanical transmission of information; Newtonian science. (Federal or unitary state)
- Planetary system: Three dimensional boundaries; ecumenism; internationalism; automation; nuclear energy; electronic transmission of information; Einsteinian science (1974, p.40).
The socio-cultural system is basically generated as a dissipative structure, whose complexity grows (in human brains, in economic structures) in proportion of permanently available energy.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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