The following three conditions seem to be indispensable for natural selection:
-reproduction and multiplication of individuals of a certain type
- non-destructive (non lethal) variations in some of these individuals
-heredity or reproduction of these variations
A supplementary condition seems to be variation in the environment, which may have a positive or negative value for the survival of specific variations within the group.
Variations increases variety (in Ashby's sense) and becomes a favorable factor in a variable environment.
Selection reflects internal and/or external constraints.
Natural selection in species applies to species as wholes, but acts through the relative fitness of individuals, which in turn reflects fitness of their genes.
These concepts are very probably valid in all kinds of societies. In particular, the new emerging field of Artificial Life uses the three processes with the same results as to the "survival" and growth of the colonies of elements in a well defined environment
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
To cite this page, please use the following information:
Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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