The calculation of the quickest and most efficient path backward, from the goal to the actual configuration (C. HARDY, 2001, p. 49)
This author writes: "… whenever the final state of a system, or the solution to a problem, is known in advance, but the intermediate steps remain unknown, it is appropriate to use a procedure in which current events are guided by future outcomes"(Ibid)
Future planified outcomes install in fact a feedforward.
Hardy adds: "Some neural nets, for example, operate by retro-propagation, comparing, at each step, the current state with the final one, looking for the shortest route from the desired final state to the current one"(Ibid)
The retro-propagation approach leds to impressive success in chess-playing by computer.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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