Evolutive radiation, i.e. the appearance and differentiation of various new types from a common origin in time, is a feature of evolution in general, i.e. not only of living beings, but also of artifacts and human organizations.
Moreover new types retain most of the fundamental characteristics of the original type and, at least in living systems, no new fundamental types seem to have emerged independently since the beginnings of life. If the same is true for artifacts is debatable, because there seems to be a complex recombination of characteristics among types and even new independent beginnings (electricity, nuclear energy for example).
The general representation of the succession of types is accordingly a unique tree fractalized along the time dimension, that could be inscribed within an overall containing funnel form.
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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