J. LORIGNY writes: "According to P. VENDRYES three levels of autonomy should be distinguished: metabolic autonomy, motor autonomy and mental autonomy…
"VENDRYES's three autonomies correspond to three succesive stages in evolution. Each developed at a definite stage of life's history and does not emerge formerly, at least in a visible fashion … The more recent ones are imbricated into the former ones, each using them after incorporating them…
"Thus, motor autonomy uses metabolic autonomy… and in the same way, mental autonomy uses motor autonomy… (Furthermore) each autonomy feeds and reinforces the former ones, having them embedded in a systemic hierarchy" (1992, p.13).
Strikingly enough, when compared with MATURANA and VARELA's concept of autonomy and organizational closure, VENDRYES himself wrote as early as 1942: "The living being is to itself its own reference system" (1942, p.290).
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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