In case of necessity a long-term adaptation may replace a short-term one. G. BATESON gives the example of high altitude acclimatization, as a human being will after some time, replace panting and heart acceleration by complex physiological changes. This 2nd level adaptation is more permanent than the 1st level superficial changes.
BATESON calls this type of adaptation "defence in depth" (1973, p.321).
This kind of adaptation is somehow hierarchical, as thus explained by W.T. POWERS:
"… lower-order reference levels become the means by which higher-order systems act; the higher systems freely adjust the lower-order reference-levels, to create the lower-order elements of perception which will result in the specified higher-order perception. This creates a hierarchy of adaptation" (1976, p.84)
Ethological examples are also known and it would be interesting to try to find cultural ones.
- 1) General information
- 2) Methodology or model
- 3) Epistemology, ontology and semantics
- 4) Human sciences
- 5) Discipline oriented
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Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science (2020). Title of the entry. In Charles François (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (2). Retrieved from www.systemspedia.org/[full/url]
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